The Methodist Church has lost an appeal against a minister who claims she was unfairly constructively dismissed. To be more precise, Haley Preston is pursuing a case along these lines against the church, and in past times the church could claim that it was not her employer, but that ministers are employed by God. Now the Appeal Court has upheld the ruling of an Employment Appeal Tribunal that Mrs Preston was in fact employed by the church, a position which gives her access to redress under employment legislation. Before now, ministers who were dismissed have had no such redress in law. The full judgment is here. The official Methodist response reads as follows:
Revd Dr Martyn Atkins, General Secretary of the Methodist Church in Britain said: “The Methodist Church is seeking leave to appeal to the Supreme Court against the judgement that Haley Preston’s (formerly Moore) case is a matter for an employment tribunal. We are treating this matter with great seriousness as something which would affect all of our ministers and the culture of our Church. “The church values all of its ministers, and it is clear to us that relationship cannot easily be reduced to a simple contract of employment. The call to Methodist ministry cannot be treated as just another job – it is based on a lifetime calling, expressed through a covenant relationship with the Church. “We want to ensure that we treat everyone fairly and properly and all of our ministers have rights of redress under existing Church procedures. We are committed to caring for all who serve the Church, whether lay or ordained, paid or volunteer.”
The point of the ‘covenant’ language is that there is a mutual covenant between church and minister. Ministers give up a home to go where the church stations them; in response, the church provides a stipend (a living allowance – not a salary) and a manse. In court the Methodist Church tried to invoke Human Rights law to the effect that religious conscience should have prior claim over employment law. The Appeal Court called this ‘moral poverty’. It appears that the church has added things to the covenant from the world of secular employment, such as appraisal, supervision and holidays, and these are now regarded as evidence by the courts in support of ministers being in a contractual situation, in addition to or instead of a covenantal one.
The covenant is good when it works. However, it can go wrong on either side. A minister can be treated badly by a congregation, circuit or other body; equally, a minister can mistreat a church or individuals. I do not know what happened in Mrs Preston’s case, and even if I did it would be wrong to comment, especially when the legal process has still not finished. Clearly, though, she feels aggrieved. However, it is a tragedy when Christians have to invoke the law in order to deal with each other, something Paul told the Corinthians in his First Epistle to their shame.
At this point I simply want to tease out the pros and cons if ministers do end up being treated as employees. In favour is the fact that it would open us up to clear protection in employment law. It might also make things clearer in cases of incompetent or abusive ministers. Against is the notion that some people would want to tell ministers explicitly what they should be doing, in ways that go against the historic notion that the stipend frees ministers to pray and seek God’s direction for their work. The introduction of the ‘Letter of Understanding’ that circuits give to ministers when an invitation to serve in a new circuit is accepted has pushed in this direction: some circuits start to get quite precise about their expectations of the minister. While accountability is important, it will be hard to be a leader if those we are trying to lead think they can tell us what we should be doing.
Furthermore, should the position be confirmed that we are employees of the church, we shall need to resolve exactly who or which body in the church is our employer. The fears described in the last paragraph could be very real if the employing body was very local. If, on the other hand, it was the Methodist Conference itself, there might be more opportunity for proper safeguards and procedures. It is not that all local lay leaders are dangerous – far from it! – but lack of knowledge, experience and skills could be dangerous.
There is a fascinating (but increasingly complex) discussion of this issue going on at the UK Methodists page on Facebook.
In the wider context, the trade union Unite (which represents such ‘faith workers’ as join it) has been campaigning for a few years now for ministers to be given the same rights as employees. That may not necessarily involve us becoming employees, but being entitled to the same protection. There is a paper explaining their position here.
This is going to run and run, in some form or another. Whatever the final conclusion, it will massively change the relationship between ministers and their congregations. My gut feeling is that it will end with ministers becoming employees in some form or another, because – as has been said on the UK Methodists Facebook page – the courts are increasingly taking the line that ‘if it looks like a duck and it quacks like a duck then it is a duck.’ It is hard to know what fundamental doctrinal reason we could have for resisting employment status, but if we go that route we shall have to be careful and we shall need to be proactive in developing what that relationship could and should be in line with our convictions.
Not sure I have any answers
but what is scary about being ’employed’ is that it then becomes all about rights (and abuses) and no longer serving God
I’ve seen that in practice.
It’s all about the number of hours worked and days off … and what is owed by the employer (church) rather than serving.
It’s happened too because the local church and the bigger picture too (connexion whatever) have demanded too much and a ‘one size fits all’ wrt to ministry
Methodism works best as a fringe organisation
messy but spirit led
I’m not sure how you can contract that (or if you can)
thanks for another thought-provoking post Dave.
I’m not sure I have any real answers either, Lorna, I just tried to set out the dilemma. Another fear I have is that everything becomes about what is measurable in a tangible way, and I don’t think you can describe ministry that way. It will become about doing at the expense of being, even potentially about getting results by whatever means possible. In fact, I think some church members think in a way that is dangerously close to that anyway, and it is exacerbated by fears surrounding church decline.
I wonder whether this is a situation where there is no fully acceptable right answer? “Employment” is easy – it can be described, regulated, measured and limited: “Covenant” is difficult – it cannot be fully described (because it is based in the infinite), it cannot be regulated (partly because it deals with all things – not just temporal things), and it cannot be limited (how can we limit an eternal God and universal Salvation?). So, naturally, the Law will favour Employment over Covenant.
There may be ways, though, of highlighting the uniqueness of this employment in its terms and conditions (if we want to play that game). For example, the employment hours might be stated to be six days per week of sixteen hours each, at the minimum legal rate of pay, with no extra pay for overtime and no holidays other than the mandatory minimum. The period of each contract could be limited to, say, five years – with no stated obligation upon the “employer” for renewal at the end of that time. I would have to think inventively to deal with supervision and assessment to differentiate these from what is in a normal contract of employment… but, alas, that’s not the point. The point is that we, as a society, no longer value Covenant and no longer act as those in service to that which is above all. “Getting results” (which you mention, Dave, with some dismay) is something that cannot, for the church, be fully measured on this earth – if it can be measured at all.
Whatever solution is adopted (employment, covenant, ‘consultancy’ contract, service provision, or something else) we still have all the same problems, and it never (in any generation) becomes easier to follow Our Lord.
Indeed, Ian, no solution is problem-free. I aired this in the hope of sparking a constructive debate. Usually when I write a post I have a specific conclusion in mind or argument to make. This time I felt there was (to my mind) an intractable dilemma, and set out to state the facts as I understood them.