I wonder whether you know the story of the devout Methodist who refused to get married on principle? He said he didn’t believe in games of chance.
The Lectionary today presents us with readings about marriage and divorce. When these lessons came around three years ago, I preached on the Mark reading and explained that Jesus does not here completely prohibit divorce and remarriage. Indeed, the prohibition on a woman to divorce her husband is actually about not deserting him.
But today, I want to go to the reading from Genesis. In some ways, this is the most fundamental text in Scripture about marriage. Both Jesus and Paul quote this passage when they teach about relationships, especially verse 24:
Therefore a man leaves his father and his mother and clings to his wife, and they become one flesh.
And in a culture where marriage is regarded as simply one of a number of relationship options, we need to think again about our Christian beliefs regarding it. We hear that ‘marriage doesn’t work’. We hear that people should do whatever two consenting adults decide between themselves to do, provided it doesn’t harm anyone else.
Before I launch into this, I want to say one other thing. As both a minister and as someone who didn’t marry until he was forty-one, I am aware this subject may not immediately apply to everyone. We are a mixture of single, married, widowed and divorced people. However, it’s hard to look at all these in one sermon. Just as I explored divorce from the Mark reading three years ago, this time I am thinking about marriage. On other occasions (not in Chelmsford, admittedly) I have preached about singleness. Another time it would be appropriate to think about widowhood and bereavement. Nor do I have time to offer any reflections this morning about homosexuality.
So come with me back to this ancient, inspired text as we explore some basic elements of Christian marriage.
The first point I want to make is that marriage is social. This is not an argument for wife-swapping! It is to say, though, that although marriage is exclusive, it isn’t private. What do I mean?
The context of our passage is about how the man will look after the garden God has created. He needs a helper, a partner. The woman is created so that she and the man may steward God’s creation together. Marriage has a social function. It is designed to bless the world. Whatever goes on in our relationships, they affect the world. This has a negative and a positive consequence.
Negatively, this is where I beg to differ with those couples who choose to live together and not marry, saying they don’t need a piece of paper to prove their commitment to each other. I don’t doubt their sincerity. However, I believe they are mistaken in thinking their exclusive relationship doesn’t have social implications. That’s why marriage is a step of social recognition.
Positively, it means a couple when they come together do not do so simply to enjoy one another and support each other. As a couple, they can have an effect for good on other people, on society and on the environment. Let me repeat something I said in a different context once. The love between the members of the Trinity had to be expressed from and beyond them, hence the creation of the universe. Likewise, the love that exists between a couple has to go from and beyond them to others. The most common way in which this happens is if they are blessed with children, but they may also share their love by serving the community. Marriage is designed to radiate the love within the home to the world.
This can involve simple acts of kindness. Opening up our homes in hospitality to those in need is one obvious way (and of course is not limited to those who are married). Just the other day, Debbie and I found ourselves talking to a friend who is Australian but married to an Englishman. A dear friend of hers back home is gravely ill with cancer. We promised to pray for her and her friend, but we also said our door was always open if she wanted a coffee. It was just a simple way of extending our love to her. It is something married couples and families should, I believe, normally aim to do as a token of God’s love.
Secondly, marriage is equal. You may find it surprising to hear such an argument from the Bible. Isn’t the woman here called a ‘helper’, and doesn’t that make her subservient to the man? Didn’t the Apostle Paul tell women to submit to their husbands, and wasn’t he an ignorant single man? Let’s dismantle this.
Take the ‘helper’ description first. Elsewhere in the Old Testament, God is called ‘the helper of Israel’, and it’s the same Hebrew word for ‘helper’ as here. I hope we are not going to suggest that God is subservient to men! The great Puritan Bible commentator Matthew Henry made this point about the woman being made from the man’s rib: She was
Not made out of his head to top him, not out of his feet to be trampled upon by him, but out of his side to be equal with him, under his arm to be protected, and near his heart to be beloved.
As for the texts about submission, let it simply be said that we also need to note what Paul required of husbands: we are to love our wives as Christ loved the Church – that is, we must be ready to die for them! The equality of marriage is not so much about equal status and rights, it is an equal relationship of self-giving, sacrificial love. This is what makes for the companionship of marriage. It is not whether we have compatible personalities, it is what we are each willing to do for our spouse for their well-being. The Bible teaches an equality of helping that leads to deep companionship.
Oh, and by the way, Paul probably wasn’t single! He says in 1 Corinthians that he isn’t married, but as a Pharisee it would be unthinkable that he hadn’t married. It’s far more likely, I believe, that he was a widower. I think he did have experience of marriage when he was young.
Thirdly, marriage is a priority. When verse 24 says, ‘Therefore a man leaves his father and mother’, that is a rather curious statement for a Jewish text. Usually it was the other way around: the bride left her parents to move in with her husband, who stayed close to his parents.
But ‘leaves’ may be translated ‘forsakes’, and this is a relative term. Marriage establishes new priorities. It is not that we stop caring about our parents, but they are no longer our first concern: our spouse is.
And I might suggest that this reordering of priorities applies not only to our parents. It applies to the rest of our lives. Which comes first, work or family? Some large companies think their employees can just uproot their families and follow the latest economic whim.
But before we get too self-righteous, we should remember how the Church has sometimes expected members and ministers to show commitment to meetings and programmes at the expense of family life. There was once a church where mysteriously a banner appeared one week across the notice board. It said, ‘All meetings cancelled.’ The stewards set up an investigation to find out who the vandal was. They discovered it was the minister’s teenage son, who felt he wasn’t seeing much of Dad.
It’s why, although I technically work a six-day week, one of the first things Debbie asked me to do when we married was to block one night a week just for us. We can’t get by as a couple simply on one day off a week. So when I look at weeknight meetings from Monday to Thursday (allowing for Friday as my usual day off), once three of those four nights are filled with appointments, I refuse any more. I don’t always get my priorities right as a husband, and I wouldn’t have thought of doing that myself, but it’s what my wife needs and it’s right to do it. After all, those who want their pound of ministerial flesh would soon express disapproval if we drifted apart and separated.
This area of priorities is one where Christians could go against the flow of society. We might not all get the promotions in our jobs that we want, but marriage makes for new priorities.
Fourthly, marriage is a covenant. In verse 24, the man ‘leaves’ or ‘forsakes’ his parents and ‘clings to his wife’ – the old word for ‘clings’ is ‘cleaves’. He leaves and cleaves. It has the sense of sticking to his wife. It is about ‘both passion and permanence’. And that raises the idea of covenant: a permanent commitment that is not simply a legal contract (marriage is more than a piece of paper), but backed with passion, with love.
This, then, is the ‘for better for worse, for richer for poorer, in sickness and in health, until we are parted by death’ element of the marriage vows. The man sticks to his wife and sticks with his wife, if you like.
Sometimes people say their marriage just died. I suggest that’s based on a false understanding of marriage. I once read some wise words on the subject. The writer said, it’s not love that will keep your marriage alive: rather, marriage will keep your love alive. In other words, it’s that decision by the grace of God to stick with your spouse in bad times as well as good that makes the difference. It’s the covenant love that loves even when we don’t feel like it. We stick to one another.
And that, I know, can be enormously difficult. A musician friend of mine, Bryn Haworth, once wrote a song called ‘Working for love’, which sums up what the covenant nature of marriage sometimes requires of us. It requires work and effort to maintain that ‘stickability’. But the good news is that the God who calls us to such effort in order to maintain and grow our marriages offers us grace and power all the time and especially at our time of need. For where God guides, he provides.
Finally, marriage is a unity. In marriage, man and woman ‘become one flesh’, says verse 24. In an age of individualism, the unity of two people in marriage reminds us we are not isolated and separate people who make our own decisions regardless of anyone else. The partners in a marriage may be very different, and that may cause tension and conflict, but they act as one. Marriage is not about ‘me’: it’s about ‘us’.
But note the unity isn’t simply that the man and woman ‘become one’, Genesis says they ‘become one flesh’. This is, I believe, a poetic allusion to the act of love. For Christians, sexual intercourse is not simply a pleasure to be pursued, like buying an ice cream (although God does intend it to be pleasurable, as the Song of Songs attests). Rather, it is, as the great spiritual writer Richard Foster says, ‘a life uniting act with life uniting intent’. The sexual act is virtually sacramental for Christians in marriage. No wonder we talk about it as the ‘consummation’ of a marriage.
This means, though, that we find ourselves vastly differing with the beliefs and practices of millions today, who believe in mutual consent but not necessarily in union. It’s another reason why I don’t believe Christian faith can agree with living together, however sincere many cohabiting couples are. If they live together as trial marriage, that makes little sense. Marriage is about total commitment, so you can no more have trial marriage than you can have trial death. Besides, all the research I have ever read shows that couples who live together are much more likely to break up than those who marry without living together first. Sexual relationships without the abandonment to unity are houses built on sand.
In conclusion, then, I cannot state an entire Christian view of marriage from this one passage, but we can find some fundamental building blocks. And what we have here makes for a distinctive witness in our society, if not a thoroughly counter-cultural approach. We take marriage to have social implications rather than being entirely private. We agree with today’s view that it is between two equals, but we say that is about mutual service and sacrificial love, not inflicting my rights over and above another person. We see the marriage relationship as a high priority above the allure of money and career. Furthermore, it is not merely a piece of paper or a legal contract, it is a covenant requiring total commitment and love. Finally, the one-flesh unity cemented in the sexual relationship distinguishes us from the tentative approaches to commitment today and the disposable attitudes to sex found in some people.
This lines us up to be distinctive in today’s world, even to the point of being mocked. May God grant us the grace to hold to our witness, and to hold to it winsomely.
 Walter Brueggemann, Genesis, p51, calls this ‘the far agenda’ as opposed to ‘the near agenda’ of sexuality and sin.
 Cited in Gordon Wenham, Genesis 1-15, p69.
 Op. cit., p71.
 I’m sure this quote is in his book Money, Sex and Power but I can’t find the page number.
 I owe this insight to Doug Barnett in a seminar at Spring Harvest some time in the 1980s.
Marriage is a Covenant for Life!
Why is something that God hates (divorce) so prevalent in our times today?
It is because people today do not know what the Bible says about marriage, divorce and remarriage.
“Everyone who divorces his wife and marries another commits adultery and he who marries one who is divorced from a husband commits adultery.”
Because remarrying after a divorce constitutes adultery, we must ask ourselves who are we committing adultery against if we are no longer married? If a divorce makes us single why are we committing adultery AFTER a divorce and if we have no spouse AFTER a divorce then who are we committing adultery against?
The answer would have to be that it is against the one from whom we are divorced. This would mean that a divorce does not dissolve the marriage bond if we can still commit adultery AFTER the court proclaims that they have dissolved our marriage.
If divorce truly ended marriage, it would be impossible to commit adultery AFTER divorcing. The fact that Jesus Himself says that the adultery kicks in AFTER a divorce must mean that divorce is powerless to actually end the marriage covenant that God has said is for life.
“A wife is married to her husband as long as he lives.”
1 Corinthians 7:39
Many, many people today are deceived.
If a divorce makes us single, why are we then committing adultery while on a honeymoon with a new partner AFTER a divorce?
People don’t get it, the divorce didn’t work…Jesus said so.
The court may declare someone’s marriage dissolved but Jesus does not agree with the court…Luke16:18
I respect the ‘indissolubility’ argument, but I think you’re quoting Scripture selectively. Have a look at my sermon on Mark 10 to which I linked and interact with my argument about the meaning of that text. Also, read the work of the Baptist scholar and specialist in this area David Instone Brewer.
There is another aspect of this – divorce is a failure to maintain the life-long covenant of marriage, and failure is always sin (the main Greek word for sin in the NT – hamartia – means precisely that, literally ‘falling short.’)
However, that sin is not an unforgiveable sin, is it? My NT only knows of one unforgiveable sin, and whatever ‘blasphemy against the Holy Spirit’ actually means, that has nothing to do with marriage or sexual sin, as far as the context suggests. Now, if the failure of a marriage can be forgiven, and the forgiveness offered in the gospel means a complete new start with our sins ‘covered up’ (as in the Hebrew for Yom Kippur – the Day of Atonement), cannot that mean the possibility of a new marriage? You may wish to argue that it should mean remarriage to the original partner, but that may be simply impossible, or even morally offensive.
Let me illustrate with one case, from among the many I have dealt with over the years. Both people sat before me were divorced. His ex-wife had run off with a younger man, leaving him behind – she left him, against his wishes, and he was divorced against his wishes. Her ex-husband had been become violent, had attacked her and the children on a number of occasions. His violence was such a threat that she left him, for the protection of the children, and divorced him. A few years later, they met and fell in love, and her children loved him, and they wanted to marry and become a proper family again. Are you telling me it was wrong for me to do marry them? Remarriage to the original partners was out of the question. Here was the way in which God could redeem the situation, and give them the new start which the gospel is about. Further, she was a life-long Christian and church member; he was interested in the faith, and became even more interested because of the compassionate way in which we dealt with them.
I sggest, Erin, that you read the texts with a little more of that compassion, and look at them in the context of hurting and broken people, rather than the vision of the perfect community which always gets things right. ‘Cos I haven’t found that yet, but I’ve been so blessed in working with them.
I just wonder whether Erin will be back. I think (without checking) I have had a similar comment elsewhere on this blog and it amounted to a drive-by comment. I didn’t even tackle divorce in this question, so if Erin is still monitoring this conversation I’d like to know why she commented on that aspect.
This is a frst class analysis of a core passage. 6 years ago towards the end of my Reader training I preached from these Readings at a nearby trandional Anglo Catholic Parish. I evidently made similar points to those the Vicar would have done!, judging by his enthusiasm afterwards
Divorce is clearly not part of God’s creative will, but my own take has always been it is there as a final permission, perhaps an escape valve for our sinfulness. Since it does seeem to be permitted in some situations, I ask myself why it should be permitted at all if remarriage was not recognised in some instnaces. If that is forbidden then a formal separation is all that is needed. In that sense I identify more to Tony and you Dave, than to Erin. However if anyone out there can comment on that point I am always ready to listen and be corrected.
None of this changes the fact that the creative will is that marriage is intended for life, and our Christian imperative is to actively pretect our own marriages as well as support the institution generally. The curate of the Parish where my younger daughter was recently married, in her talk at the ceremony, expressed this in terms of support when “the whatever does happen as it will”, and the emotions of the big day are passed.
Secondly I do appreciate your take on “equal”, not just in marriage itself but also for its wider implications. On complementarian type issues, including women in ministry and for Angilcans like me the episcopacy, I have felt I should start with creation as expressing God’s intention for us, before considering how things moved on after the fall. The church should surely show the world, imperfectly no doubt, something of the consumation of the Kingdom . Genesis 1 is neutral here. Male and Female are in His image and there is no implicit comment one being over the other. But Genesis 2 caused me more diffficulty. Seeing your take here seems to bring a greater sense of unity with Genesis 1, and gives us a start point where the only real differences between men and women a those governed by biology.
Thanks for your kind comments, Colin. One thing I would find helpful to hear from those of an indissolubilist position is what the status of divorce is: if it doesn’t end a marriage, how is it different from separation?
I agree with Colin about God’s creative will being that marriage is for life. It is such a rich, wonderful, creative blessing, and it takes a whole lifetime to begin to come to fruition.
In that context, I define divorce as the “Martin Baker option”. Martin Baker make ejector seats. Any pilot will tell you that the mark of a good pilot is making your number of landings equal the number of take-offs. Even if problems arise, you may still be able to deal with them and bring the aircraft to a safe landing. However, there comes the point (engine gone, wing dropped off, etc) when the only available option is the Martin Baker option. Just so, most marriages will go through variable periods, and may encounter problems. If the problems spotted soon enough and addressed properly, the relationship may continue safely. If the problems prove insoluble, or are not addressed soon enough, they may reach the point of destroying the marriage. While it was never God’s intent for that marriage to end in divorce, any more than it would be a pilot’s intent to end his flight parachuting from a wreck, that may be the only remaining option for the rescue of the people involved.
In short, I believe it is God’s creative will for marriage to last for life, but I do not believe it to be his will that people are destroyed in order to make that so. His saving will is to rescue people from the wreckage we make of our lives, and enable a new start and life in grace. Anything other than that would be legalism of the most pharisaic kind.
Dave, this is very well written……..and I agree it is “counter-cultural” in this day and age. At times my wife and I have felt like an endangered species.
I have to agree with Tony also, I like the analogy of the ejector seat, as being something you try very hard NOT to use. I’ve known far too many couples who enter marriage with the thought in their minds that divorce is a convenient back door, and have no thought of forever, no thought of growing old with their mate.
On the cultural level, I still believe marriage is a foundation of society, and that a good lot of society’s woes have to do with current attitudes towards it. Stability is God’s idea, and lifelong stability in marriage goes far beyond benefitting just the couple and their family.
As for the “indissolubilist” position, if Erin was meaning to quote Matthew 19:8, she left out Jesus’ qualifying statement “except for marital unfaithfulness”, which shows that Jesus understood human frailties. If Jesus has said here that there is one way in which divorce and remarriage could occur without it being adulterous, then “marital unfaithfulness” breaks the bond of marriage that Erin claims is never broken.
Again, I like how Tony put it….”His saving will is to rescue people from the wreckage we make of our lives, and enable a new start and life in grace. Anything other than that would be legalism of the most pharisaic kind.”
Tony and Owen’s comments ring many bells for me. After 32 years (in c 2 weeks) we sometimes feel like a rarity, though thank the Lord in our combined families we have all so far survived better than average. In my own sermon of 6 years ago I described marriage as entering the consumer throw away age. Man is sinful and divorce is surely not the unpardonable sin, and their is forgiveness and healing in Christ, at whatever stage it is sincerely sought.
Exactly, Owen. Erin is selective in her quoting of Scripture. Paul also has another ‘exception’ in 1 Corinthians 7, regarding a non-Christian spouse who does not wish to remain married to a Christian. And in Matthew 19 the word often translated ‘adultery’ is ‘porneia’, which refers to any kind of sexual immorality – thus broadening the meaning beyond what we commonly take the verse to mean.